TNM Staging

A staging system for all cancers including breast cancer is another tool for the doctors to differentiate the tumors and to choose the best treatment for them. Staging can be divided in:
-Clinical staging
when is based in the information gathered before surgery, so information gathered from physical examination, radiological examination or endoscopy.
Pathological staging when is based in the information gathered after the surgery from the  examination of  the tumor microscopically.

The pathological staging is considered to be more accurate because allows the doctor to get a firsthand impression of the extension of the breast cancer. To differentiate they are used as small letters “c” or “p” before the stage.

TNM staging is another system  for the classification of malignant tumors. It was developed by Pierre Denoix (France) between the years 1943 and 19521. Since then it has been changed different times. The present seventh edition of TNM Classification contains rules of classification and staging that correspond with those appearing in the seventh edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (2009) and have approval of all national TNM committees.It should remain unchanged until some major advances in diagnosis or treatment relevant to a particular site requires reconsideration of the current classification.

T stands for tumor– it gives information about the tumor size:

  • TX is used when the tumor can’t be found or can’t be measured
  • T0 is used when there is no evidence of the primary tumor Continue reading TNM Staging