TNM Staging

A staging system for all cancers including breast cancer is another tool for the doctors to differentiate the tumors and to choose the best treatment for them. Staging can be divided in:
-Clinical staging
when is based in the information gathered before surgery, so information gathered from physical examination, radiological examination or endoscopy.
Pathological staging when is based in the information gathered after the surgery from the  examination of  the tumor microscopically.

The pathological staging is considered to be more accurate because allows the doctor to get a firsthand impression of the extension of the breast cancer. To differentiate they are used as small letters “c” or “p” before the stage.

TNM staging is another system  for the classification of malignant tumors. It was developed by Pierre Denoix (France) between the years 1943 and 19521. Since then it has been changed different times. The present seventh edition of TNM Classification contains rules of classification and staging that correspond with those appearing in the seventh edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (2009) and have approval of all national TNM committees.It should remain unchanged until some major advances in diagnosis or treatment relevant to a particular site requires reconsideration of the current classification.

T stands for tumor– it gives information about the tumor size:

  • TX is used when the tumor can’t be found or can’t be measured
  • T0 is used when there is no evidence of the primary tumor Continue reading TNM Staging

Breast Cancer Stages

Breast cancer is a serious disease that affects millions around the world, and in the United States alone there are more than two million men and women who have survived this cancer. The disease is almost exclusively targeted to women, but there have been cases of men with breast cancer. The determining factor on whether or not someone survives breast cancer is how soon it is caught and treated, with those receiving treatment for the disease in its later stages having a much lower survival rate than those who catch the cancer early, especially in the beginning. Lower stages indicate the earlier stages of cancer while higher numbers indicate late-stage cancers a lower possibility for full recovery. Staging breast cancer lets the doctor determine its characteristics like:

  • the size of the tumor and the location in the breast
  • if it is localized or has spread within the breast
  • if the cancer has spread in the lymph nodes under the arm
  • if the cancer has spread in other parts of the body

Stage 0- is the stage of breast cancer called Carcinoma in Situ, and is not really a stage of the cancer at all, but is the earliest point at which the cancer can be caught. Patients who are treated for breast cancer at this stage survive at least five years one hundred percent of the time and most continue as though they had never had cancer. This stage is marked by the presence of atypical cells that Continue reading Breast Cancer Stages

Breast Cancer Treatment

Today, thanks to modern medicine, there are more survivors of breast cancer than ever before. Each year, more advances are made in breast cancer treatments and there are around two million survivors of the disease in the United States alone. The prevalence of breast cancer today is a product of extended lifespan, but the disease was recorded centuries ago. Today, there are many different treatments for breast cancer, most very effective and more research is being conducted into the treatment of this and other types of cancer every year.


Breast Cancer Treatment

Goals of Breast Cancer Treatments

There are two main goals that doctors are attempting to accomplish with whatever type of breast cancer they are treating, or whichever type of treatment that they recommend. Obviously, the first and most important goal is to get rid of Continue reading Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast cancer symptoms can vary in a wide range because there are a lot of breast cancer types, and sometimes in its early stage there are no obvious symptoms at all. So it’s better to be informed of the possible symptoms so you can be aware of the changes in your body and go to your doctor as soon as you notice some abnormality.  Identifying breast cancer early means to have the possibility of a more effective treatment and a less aggressive one that can interfere with your life quality. In order for you to identify the first signs of breast cancer you need to know what your breasts normally feel like. During lifetime the breast can go throw different changes and not all of them are a sign of breast cancer. Some changes might be caused from breast cysts, some from the menstrual cycle, some from the activation of the milk-producing tissue, etc. So before you panic you should understand if there is a reason why your breast is changing.


Breast Cancer Symptoms

Here we are going to mention the most important breast cancer symptoms:

  • Changes in the shape, contour, and size of the breast or nipple.
  • A lump or swelling in the armpit or in the breast. It may have uneven edges and usually they don’t hurt. Lumps can be visible on a mammogram before they can be felt or seen. This is why woman after their 40 with higher risk for breast cancer should do regular breast exams and mammograms so the breast cancer is diagnosed in its early stages. Benign lumps differ from cancerous lumps. Continue reading Breast Cancer Symptoms

What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor developed from cells in the breast. It occurs as a result of abnormal changes or mutation in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells. Normally cells in our bodies have a life cycle, in which they are formed, grow and die. Healthy new cells replace old or dead cells. But over time and for a lot of other factors that we are going to discuss later mutations can cause changes in the genes, or activate or deactivate certain genes. So breast cancer is always caused by a mistake in the genetic material. This genetic abnormality gives the cells the ability to divide without control or order, producing other defective cells and this way forming the tumor.

What Is Breast Cancer?


A tumor can be benign when its cells are usually close to normal in appearance, grow slowly and don’t spread in other parts of the body. They form something like a lump that can only cause compression. So these kinds of tumor have to grow a lot Continue reading What Is Breast Cancer?